什么是紧急状态(State of Emergency)?

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宣布紧急状态是临时给与各级政府特殊权力,以对抗自然灾害、战争或疾病爆发这样的紧急情况。

市级紧急状态

市紧急状态允许城市关闭企业或没收个人财产和土地。它使急救人员和其他城市官员可以在需要时临时使用城市中的设施,包括社区中心,酒店和会议场所。譬如,他们可以将旅馆转变为住房或照顾弱势群体的场所。

他们还可以关闭不遵守职业限制的企业,或者在特定社区面临疫情的情况下关闭企业,急救人员能够优先采购应对紧急情况所需的任何衣物、设备、医疗用品或其他基本用品,可以用来反对囤积物资。

省级紧急状态

省级紧急状态类似于市级紧急状态,它允许省级官员执行以前无法执行的任务。

截至3月20日,卑诗、安大略、新不伦瑞克、萨斯喀彻温、曼尼托巴以及西北三个地区已宣布进入紧急状态,而其他省份(如艾伯塔省和魁北克省)已宣布公共卫生紧急状态。差别在于,有些省份将医疗紧急情况写入紧急状态法案,而其他省份则没有。

卑诗省实际上在宣布省级紧急状态的前一天宣布了公共卫生紧急状态。公共卫生紧急事件特别允许省卫生官员立即发布必须生效的命令,例如在圣帕特里克节关闭所有酒吧,卫生部长在未经立法机关同意的情况下修改《公共卫生法》。

卑诗省级紧急状态将这些权力扩展到其他政府官员,并围绕公共安全进行更加结构化的安排。根据《卑诗省紧急计划法》,该省可以获取土地或个人财产,控制进出该省的旅行,疏散人员,建造建筑物并采购物资以帮助应对紧急情况。

国家紧急状态

联邦政府可以使用《紧急状态法》对所处情况施加紧急状态,如无延长,紧急状态将在90天后失效。该法案赋予总理权力,以应对四种不同类型的紧急情况:公共福利,公共秩序,国际紧急情况和战争紧急情况。

COVID-19大流行可能会被归类为公共福利紧急情况,其法定要求参加会议的议员是20名,可以在一天内通过。

《紧急状态法》于1988年颁布,以取代《战争措施法》作为立法,赋予内阁和总理在危机时期颁布行政命令的权力。至今未曾使用。在加拿大历史上,《联邦战争法》在联邦一级被使用了三次:第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战,以及1970年10月的危机。

类似于市级和省级的紧急状态,国家紧急状态将使政府能够没收财产,管理公共聚会,甚至可能禁止往返该国某些地区的旅行。政府还可以向受影响的人们提供紧急款项,并指示工人提供他们有资格提供的基本服务。对违反该法令的人将处以罚款或监禁。

《紧急状态法》将使政府能够迅速做出这些决定,而不需要经过议会。


The declaration of a state of emergency is a way to grant various levels of government extraordinary temporary powers to fight an emergency such as a natural disaster, war or disease outbreak.

Municipal state of emergency
This gives a city’s officials, city council and mayor extraordinary powers to combat a crisis.
A municipal state of emergency allows the city to close businesses or seize personal property and land. It gives first responders and other city officials the ability to use facilities in the city when needed, including community centres, hotels and meeting places, temporarily. Hypothetically, they could convert hotels into housing or care space for vulnerable populations.
They could also close businesses not adhering to occupation limits or if it’s in a specific community facing an outbreak. The declaration allows emergency responders to procure on a first priority basis any clothing, equipment, medical supplies or other essential supplies required to cope with the emergency. The city could use the declaration to act against hoarding of supplies.

Provincial state of emergency or public health emergency
A provincial state of emergency is similar to one at the municipal level in that it allows provincial officials to do things they previously could not.
As of March 20, British Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and all three territories have declared states of emergency, while other provinces such as Alberta and Quebec have declared public health emergencies. The difference depends on the province. Some provinces have specific stipulations for health emergencies written into their respective acts, while others don’t. That’s likely why the responses from Alberta and B.C, have been different from each other.
B.C. actually declared a public health emergency a day before declaring a state emergency. In the case of B.C., the public health emergency specifically allows the provincial health officer to issue orders immediately that must come into effect, such as B.C.’s closing of all bars on St. Patrick’s Day. It also allows the health minister to amend the Public Health Act without the consent of the legislature.
A state of emergency in B.C. extends those powers to other government officials and is more structured around public safety. Under B.C.’s Emergency Program Act, the province can acquire land or personal property, control travel in and out of the province, evacuate people, build structures and procure supplies to help combat the emergency.

National state of emergency
The federal government can use the Emergencies Act to impose a state of emergency, which expires after 90 days unless extended. The act gives powers to the prime minister to respond to four different types of emergency scenarios: public welfare, public order, international emergencies and war emergencies.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic would likely be classified as a public welfare emergency. Only 20 MPs need to be in the chamber to meet quorum if that’s the case, and it hypothetically could be pushed through in a single day.
The Emergencies Act was enacted in 1988 to replace the War Measures Act as legislation that gives cabinet and the prime minister the power to enact executive orders during times of crisis. It has never been invoked. The War Measures Act was invoked three times at the federal level in Canada’s history: during the first and second World Wars, as well as during the October Crisis of 1970.
Similar to emergency declarations at the municipal and provincial levels, a federal state of emergency would allow the government to seize property, regulate public gatherings and potentially even prohibit the travel to or from certain areas of the country. The government could also give emergency payments to people impacted, and direct workers to render essential services they’re qualified to provide. It would impose fines or jail time for people who go against the orders of the act.
Invoking the Emergencies Act would allow the government to fast-track these decisions rather than go through parliament for each one.

 
最后编辑: 2020-03-22
Canada not at the point of declaring a federal emergency over COVID-19: Trudeau

是的,暂时还没有,过几天感染数大增,就不好说啦。
我只是根据媒体的口风和各种快速加强的措施进行预测,不一定对的。
 
最后编辑: 2020-03-22
As Canada confronts the worsening COVID-19 outbreak, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has hinted his government might declare a federal emergency, giving his cabinet extra powers to battle the pandemic.

“It is a major tool and I can tell you that we already have a lot of tools that allow us to do what we need to do,” said Trudeau, at his Thursday news conference outside Rideau Cottage in Ottawa. “If there are other steps that need to be accomplished and can only be accomplished through invoking the Emergencies Act then we will do so.”

 
问了周围的本地白人,他们觉得如果国金紧急状态宣布,就会不得了,表情都很到位。 :LOL:
是的,还没有用过,但Global News 那篇文章也没说不会用。
据我估计,这是迟早的问题,最早下周二,不然就等再下一次的国会。
多伦多市长宣布召集房东开会,省政府宣布可以根据需要调整医院的工作人员的岗位..... 几代人都没有经历过的事情还有很多......
 
最后编辑: 2020-03-22
Trudeau not declaring national state of emergency for COVID-19 yet

TORONTO -- Despite several states of emergency being declared by provincial governments across the country, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says he won’t be invoking a national one just yet.
Trudeau said the federal government is looking at a broad array of measures to respond to the growing health emergency and they haven’t “removed from the table” any options.
These powers could include regulating or prohibiting travel within Canada, evacuations, removing or requisitioning personal property, order people to deliver essential services, regulating the distribution of essential goods and services, making emergency payments and compensation, and imposing fines and jail terms to anyone who contravenes the orders.

 

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