重大突破!美科学家发现“超级抗体”能对抗所有新冠病毒

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国际权威科学期刊《自然》(Nature)杂志于14日刊载一项研究指出,科学家们发现一种“超级抗体”,不仅可以对抗多种新冠病毒的变异株,还能对抗其他密切相关的冠状病毒,这项全新发现可能有助于开发更广泛的疫苗与治疗方法。

根据《自然》杂志发表的论文,研究主要作者是来自美国西雅图的福瑞德哈金森肿瘤研究中心(Fred Hutchinson Cancer)

重大突破!科学家发现“超级抗体”能对抗所有新冠病毒


Research Center)的生物化学专家斯塔尔(Tyler Starr),他与研究人员从感染新冠病毒(SARS-CoV-2)或SARS冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)的患者身上,分离出12种抗体,这些抗体能依附在病毒棘蛋白受体结合域中,研究人员列出新冠病毒与变异株上的数千个突变,借此测试抗体能否有效中和这些属于“乙型冠状病毒支系B”(Sarbecovirus)分类下的的各类病毒。

结果发现,其中一种名为“S2H97”的中和抗体能够瞄准并依附在所有实验中列出的病毒受体结合域上,斯塔尔说,“它被我们称为最酷的一种抗体”。团队针对“S2H97”进一步研究显示,它能找出病毒结合域上一个以前看不见且隐藏得很好的区域,只有在与人体细胞受体结合时才会从结合域弹出,再借由中和作用防止病毒传播,这也是为何这种“超级抗体”S2H97能够广泛对抗乙型冠状病毒支系B下的新冠肺炎与SARS等病毒的原因。

另外,研究中的其他11种抗体也能有效对抗多种病毒,但只要抗体针对原始的新冠病毒株(SARS-CoV-2)越精准、有效,就代表它能中和的病毒结合域范围越小,像“S2H97”这样能使多种病毒失效的抗体针对的则是那些在病毒进化之后,依旧不会改变的关键结合域部分。加拿大萨省大学病毒学家班纳吉(Arinjay Banerjee)说,S2H97将有助于开发疫苗、治疗方法,让人类做好准备对抗下一种人畜传染的冠状病毒。
 
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This ‘super antibody’ for COVID fights off multiple coronaviruses​

An newly identified immune molecule raises hopes for a vaccine against a range of viruses related to SARS-CoV-2.
You have full access to this article via your institution.
Illustration of antibodies responding to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus particle.

Antibodies (light blue; artist’s impression) swarm around a SARS-CoV-2 particle.Credit: Design Cells/SPL
Scientists have uncovered an antibody that can fight off not only a wide range of SARS-CoV-2 variants, but also closely related coronaviruses1. The discovery could aid the quest to develop broad-ranging treatments and vaccines.
Tyler Starr, a biochemist at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, and his co-authors set out to shed light on a problem facing antibody treatments for COVID-19: some variants of SARS-CoV-2 have acquired mutations that enable the virus to escape the antibodies’ grasp.
The researchers examined 12 antibodies that Vir Biotechnology, a company based in San Francisco, California, that was involved in the study, isolated from people who had been infected with either SARS-CoV-2 or its close relative SARS-CoV. Those antibodies latch on to a fragment of viral protein that binds to receptors on human cells. Many antibody therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection grab the same protein fragment, called the receptor binding domain.
The researchers compiled a list of thousands of mutations in the binding domains of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. They also catalogued mutations in the binding domain on dozens of SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses that belong to a group called the sarbecoviruses. Finally, they assessed how all these mutations affect the 12 antibodies’ ability to stick to the binding domain.


COVID and the brain: researchers zero in on how damage occurs

One antibody, S2H97, stood out for its capacity to adhere to the binding domains of all the sarbecoviruses that the researchers tested. S2H97, which the authors dub a pan-sarbecovirus antibody, was able to prevent a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses from spreading among cells growing in the laboratory. It was also powerful enough to protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection. “That’s the coolest antibody that we described,” Starr says.
A closer examination of S2H97’s molecular structure revealed that it targets a previously unseen and well-hidden region on the binding domain — a section that is revealed only when the domain pops up to bind to a cell’s receptor. Starr notes that molecules targeting this binding-domain region could generate protection against multiple viruses, and might one day be used in pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.
The other 11 antibodies could target a variety of viruses, but the more effectively an antibody blocked the entry of the earliest known SARS-CoV-2 strain into a cell, the smaller the range of viruses it could bind. The team also found that antibodies that could disable a wide variety of viruses targeted sections of the binding domain that tended not to change as the virus evolved.
It’s good news that the team has identified antibodies that can bind to a range of sarbecoviruses, says Arinjay Banerjee, a virologist at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada. “The biggest question that remains is, what about viruses that we don’t know exist yet?”
Although scientists can’t test an antibody’s activity against an unknown virus, Banerjee adds, pan-sarbecovirus treatments and vaccines would help to prepare the world to fight the next coronavirus that jumps from wildlife into humans.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-01917-9

UPDATES & CORRECTIONS​

  • Correction 15 July 2021: An earlier version of this article stated incorrectly that all of the antibodies in the research were from people who had recovered from COVID-19.

References​

 
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国际权威科学期刊《自然》(Nature)杂志于14日刊载一项研究指出,科学家们发现一种“超级抗体”,不仅可以对抗多种新冠病毒的变异株,还能对抗其他密切相关的冠状病毒,这项全新发现可能有助于开发更广泛的疫苗与治疗方法。

根据《自然》杂志发表的论文,研究主要作者是来自美国西雅图的福瑞德哈金森肿瘤研究中心(Fred Hutchinson Cancer)

重大突破!科学家发现“超级抗体”能对抗所有新冠病毒


Research Center)的生物化学专家斯塔尔(Tyler Starr),他与研究人员从感染新冠病毒(SARS-CoV-2)或SARS冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)的患者身上,分离出12种抗体,这些抗体能依附在病毒棘蛋白受体结合域中,研究人员列出新冠病毒与变异株上的数千个突变,借此测试抗体能否有效中和这些属于“乙型冠状病毒支系B”(Sarbecovirus)分类下的的各类病毒。

结果发现,其中一种名为“S2H97”的中和抗体能够瞄准并依附在所有实验中列出的病毒受体结合域上,斯塔尔说,“它被我们称为最酷的一种抗体”。团队针对“S2H97”进一步研究显示,它能找出病毒结合域上一个以前看不见且隐藏得很好的区域,只有在与人体细胞受体结合时才会从结合域弹出,再借由中和作用防止病毒传播,这也是为何这种“超级抗体”S2H97能够广泛对抗乙型冠状病毒支系B下的新冠肺炎与SARS等病毒的原因。

另外,研究中的其他11种抗体也能有效对抗多种病毒,但只要抗体针对原始的新冠病毒株(SARS-CoV-2)越精准、有效,就代表它能中和的病毒结合域范围越小,像“S2H97”这样能使多种病毒失效的抗体针对的则是那些在病毒进化之后,依旧不会改变的关键结合域部分。加拿大萨省大学病毒学家班纳吉(Arinjay Banerjee)说,S2H97将有助于开发疫苗、治疗方法,让人类做好准备对抗下一种人畜传染的冠状病毒。
下一步病毒转到动物,因为动物也是人的轮回,只是不在一个空间,彼此无法对话。然后,病毒再由动物返回到人类。 所谓道高一尺,魔高一丈就是这个道理,人类现在只盯着病毒,其实比病毒更可怕的就是大洪水!地球75%的面积被海洋覆盖,人类本来能生存的空间就很小,现在科技一个劲发展,对这仅有的生存空间一个劲破坏,导致全球暖化,全球暖化的最大危害就是降雨增多,而且是在全球范围内降雨,包括两极这种终年覆盖积雪的大陆, 最终大洪水来临,这比病毒还严重!上一次人类文明的灭绝就是因为大洪水!
 

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